Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum Guide
HIP(Hiroshima Interpreters for Peacej
The East Building mainly features Hiroshimafs history before and after the A-bomb.
The relics of the victims and A-bomb artifacts are displayed in the West Building.
We believe that everybody should know the reasons and history behind choosing Hiroshima as the first city to be A-bombed. This helps us to convey how massively destructive and horrible nuclear weapons are, and how precious peace is.
This is why this East Building was opened
East building (Lobby)
[Peace Watch Tower]
On the clock, shadows of hands show the time of the A-bomb detonation. The first figure shows the number of days since the A-bombing on Hiroshima. The second one is the number of days since the last nuclear test. October 2006, North Korea announced she had conducted underground nuclear test.
In 1981, the late Pope John Paul ll visited here to make gPeace Appealh. To commemorate his visit, this monument was erected. A part of his gPeace Appealh is inscrived.
On the first floor of the East Building, the history of Hiroshima before the A-bombing, and the ruins immediately after the A-bombing are described,(pause, when speaking) with models, films and photo panels.
Let's watch a three-minute-video of the museum.
[History of Hiroshima]@@
Castle Town in the Edo Period [1589-1868]
About 400 years ago, Hiroshima became a castle town.
The Education City@@
About 100 years ago, 99 percent of children went to school, so Hiroshima was an academically-oriented city.At that time, there were two teachers' schools in Japan.
One was in Tokyo and one was here in Hiroshima.
[Ujina Port for troops to China(Sino-Japanese War,1894)]@@
The Fifth Division, one of the six national divisions, was established in Hiroshima.
The railway was extended to Hiroshima from Tokyo.
When the Sino-Japanese War broke out, a military railway line was constructed to connect Hiroshima Station with Ujina Harbor in 17 days.
[Large concentration of army facilities]@@
Because of the victory of the Sino-Japanese War, Hiroshima city was prosperous and busy.
Many military facilities were constructed in Hiroshima City.
They were mainly located in the vicinity of Hiroshima Castle, near Hiroshima Station and in Ujina.
They occupied about 10 % of the city at that time. The main facilities were;
The Army Provision Depot, The ArmyClothing Depot, The Army Ordnance Supply Depot, etc.
[The Imperial Headquarters to Hiroshima, 1894]
When the Sino-Japanese War broke out, the Emperor Meiji moved the Imperial Headquarters to Hiroshima.
Emperor Meiji, Hirohito's grandfather, stayed here in Hiroshima for about eight months to command the war.
Hiroshima City took on the atmosphere of a temporary national capital.
[Korean-Japanese Annexation Treaty, 1910]
In 1910, Japan colonized Korea. Many Japanese people moved there.
Consequently, many Korean people lost their livelihood. They moved to Japan to seek jobs.
[The 15-year war with China (1931)/Surprise attack on Pearl Harbor in Hawaii (1941)-The Pacific War]@@
In 1931, the Manchurian Incident led to the occupation of Manchuria by Japanese troops.
In 1937, the Marco Polo Bridge incident triggered a 15-year war, a full-scale war between China and Japan.
In 1941, Japan made a surprise attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor and the Pacific War broke out.
[Development of the Fifth Division]
The Hiroshima Fifth Division was the first to be sent to the front.
Many soldiers from all over Japan were assembled at Hiroshima Station and dispatched from Ujina Harbor to the battlefields day after day.
[Lantern Parade (Occupation of Nanking, 1937)]
Early in war with China,the Japanese Army occupied many Chinese cities.
In 1937, the Japanese Army occupied the Chinese capital city, Nanking.
Japanese people had believed this war was "a holy crusade", so they cheered this occupation.
Even in Hiroshima, residents celebrated with a lantern parade.
In Nanking, however, the Japanese army slaughtered many Chinese people.
Japanese people knew nothing about that. China has stated the number of dead to be 300,000.
[National "Mobilization Spirit, 1937]
The Japanese government enforced nationalism and militarism on the nation's people.
As the war intensified, an austere lifestyle was encouraged with such slogans as "Extravagance is the enemy", and "Do without until we win."
Rice, fuel, clothing and other daily necessities were rationed and purchased with coupons because shortages developed quickly.
(Key words which represent the situation)
@@ Neighborhood and block association, Air-raid drills, Air defense sheltersALabor serviceA
Draft card, Fighting fires with bucket relaysAAir-raid hood, Training with a sharpened bamboo spearADaily necessitiesARationing systemACoupon systemAClothing couponA
@@@@Belt of one thousand red knots, Order to Collect Metals (1942)
*Self-sacrifice for the sake of one's country: Selfless devotion to one's country and one's Emperor.
[Student Mobilization Law (1944)]
In August, 1944, 'The Student Mobilization Law' was enacted to compensate for the labor shortage
Older students of middle schools and girls' schools were mobilized to work in ammunition factories, and younger students grew vegetables in the fields and playgrounds.
As you know, most Japanese houses were made of wood at that time. The US Military used "incendiary bombs" in air attacks on Japanese cities in order to set fire to buildings.
So, the city mobilized people to demolish buildings and houses to create firebreaks when the bombs fell.
In July, 1945, Japanese Military ordered first and second year students of middle schools and girls' schools to demolish wooden houses to make the fire breaks.
@ On the morning of August 6, 1945, over 8,400 students, mostly 12 or 13 years old, were mobilized and about 6,400 students were killed by the atomic bomb.
@ Some of the belongings of those children are displayed in the West Building.
[Evacuation from Hiroshima City of 3rd to 6th grade elementary school students (April, 1945)]
When air raids became very frequent, children were evacuated from Hiroshima City to stay with their relatives in the countryside.
About 8,500 children from the third grade to the sixth grade with no relatives in the country were evacuated with their teachers to temples and shrines in the countryside in Hiroshima prefecture with their teachers.
Many of the evacuated children lost their families and became A-bomb orphans.
[The war situation worsened]
The people in Hiroshima were subjected to increasing shortage of necessities..
Most of the big cities in Japan were bombed. But Hiroshima was an exception, having never been bombed. The U.S. military had never bombed on Hiroshima.
[Reason for using the bomb]
The United States wanted to limit American casualties by forcing Japan to surrender as quickly as possible.
At the Yalta Conference in February, 1945, the Soviet Union secretly agreed to join the war against Japan within three months of Germany's surrender. Before the Soviet Union could enter the war, the United States wanted to force Japan to surrender to secure a stronger political position and establish its dominance after the war.
The United States wanted to use the Atomic bombs in war to measure the effect of them..
On May 7th in 1945, Germany surrendered unconditionally.
In August 1942, the United States launched the Manhattan Project to produce an atomic bomb.
On July 16, 1945, three weeks before dropping the A-bomb on Hiroshima, the United States
successfully carried out the world's first nuclear weapons test in the desert of New Mexico.
[Reasons for selecting Hiroshima]
Geographically, the size and shape of the city was very suitable.
A high concentration of troops, military facilities was not yet been destroyed.
[Immediately before the A-bombing]
These panorama models show the prewar and postwar Nakajima district where the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park was constructed ten years after the A-bombing.
There is a lighting over there. The lighting is the place where we are now, so this triangular district and around the Atomic Bomb Dome are now called the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park.
There used to be six towns in this park.
This area flourished as one of the city's major commercial hubs during Edo and Taisho Periods (1603-1925). There used to be many restaurants, shops, inns, clinics, billiard halls, shooting galleries and movie theaters here.
Houses were packed in densely. About 4,400 people lived here.
This is the Hiroshima Prefectural Industrial Promotion Hall which is now known as the Atomic Bomb Dome. It was a very beautiful and modern western building designed by Czech architect Jan Letzel.
You can see open spaces over there. As the air raids on the Main Island of Japan intensified, mobilized students, mostly 12 or 13 years old girls and boys, were mobilized to demolish private wooden houses to create firebreaks. On the morning August 6, about 1,900 students were working in@this area.
This unique T-shaped bridge, Aioi Bridge, was located in the city center. It is said to have been the target for the dropping of the A-bomb.
The A-bomb exploded in the air about 600 meters above the Shima Hospital which was about 280 meters southeast of the hypocenter.
[Immediately after the A-bombing]
Let's take a look at another model to know what happened to central Hiroshima just near the hypocenter after the A-bombing. That red ball is the Atomic bomb just after the explosion.
Almost at the same time of the explosion, a lot of radiation was scattered on Hiroshima.
The heat lays had been emitted for three seconds.
Temperatures in the hypocenter vicinity reached 3,000 to 4,000 degrees Celsius. It was about 100 times as hot as the temperature in the hottest summer day in Hiroshima.
Only ferro-concrete buildings barely remained standing, though the interior of those buildings was completely burned.
The Atomic Bomb Dome was almost crushed at the moment of the explosion. It is said that about 30 people were working there, but all of them died. It became a symbol of "No More Hiroshimafs".
This is Honkawa Elementary School. Older students were evacuated from Hiroshima City.
They stayed in the countryside. On that morning, there were about 260 first and second graders' students at school. Miraculously, one girl survived because she was in the basement near a shoe locker.
This building was the Fuel Hall. This A-bombed building is used as a "rest house" now. Originally, this building was the "Taisho Kimono Shop" which was built in 1929. On that morning, thirty-seven people were at work and all the people inside were killed except one person in the basement who survived miraculously.
About 1,900 mobilized students were killed because they were outside working.
These two rivers were filled with swollen dead bodies and dying people.
This is the Motoyasu River. It is believed that there were more corpses here than any other rivers in Hiroshima. On the evening of August 6 (Japan@time) every year, the floating lantern ceremony
takes place here to comfort the souls of A-bomb victims.
[Model of the A-bomb Dome]
This model is 73 percent smaller than the real size of the Dome.
[Protesting telegrams against nuclear tests]
On the wall of the A-bomb Dome model, there are about 600 telegrams protesting nuclear tests.
As long as nuclear tests continue, the mayor of Hiroshima will continue to send protest telegrams.
Each telegram expressed the fervent hope that it will be the last such telegram.
[Ruins immediately after the A-bomb (photograph)]
Two months after the A-bomb, this photo was taken by a professional photographer, Shigeo Hayashi.
Accordingly, there were no bodies on the street or in the rivers at that time. Furthermore, one month after the bombing, a big typhoon hit Hiroshima and it washed away dirty items. Therefore,
The big difference of the damages between the A-bomb and an ordinary bomb were reduced during two months.
[Streetcar-Aug. 9 - Koi to Nishi-temma-cho]
Thanks to strenuous restoration work, the streetcar resumed service between Koi and Nishi-temma-cho three days after the A-bomb.
Driving streetcars encouraged hopeless survivors.
[X-ray cabinet of the Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital]
They discovered that a sealed x-ray film had been exposed, then they proved that this new bomb was the Atomic bomb on August 10.
[Exposed wall of Red Cross Hospital]
Many pieces of fragmented glass were imbedded in the wall of the Red Cross Hospital which was located 1.6 kilometers from the hypocenter.
Sixty percent of A-bomb victims were killed by the heat rays and fire, twenty percent by the radiation and the rest of them by the blast. Many people were covered with blood because many glass fragments or woods were imbedded in their bodies like this wall.
East Building (2F)
On the second floor, you can see how the people restored the ruined city and faced many trials.
People began to gather materials from destroyed buildings to erect barrack-style temporary shelters.
Many 3rd and 6th grader who were evacuated to the countryside in the war became A-bomb orphans.
Their surroundings were totally changed. Their city was completely destroyed. All their family members were killed. Food was much scarcer than that during the war. Their education also totally changed from military education to democratic education.
It is said that there were about 6,500 A-bomb orphans. Many of them stayed in front of Hiroshima Station or under the bridges. They worked as shoe shiners or sold used cigarette butts to earn their livings.
They were taken in by some orphanages. However, some of them wandered from place to place because some of them hated the orphanages they were in and some of them were found by city government.
[ABCC (The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission)/RERF(The Radiation Effects Research Foundation)]@
ABCC(the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission) was established in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki to research and investigate the effect of the A-bomb. However, they didn't give treatment to the survivors.
During the occupation, the research on the effects of the A-bomb on the human body was carried out exclusively by the ABCC (Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission).
In 1975, Japan and the United States agreed to equally share the operation and management of the facility. The commission was reorganized and renamed the Radiation Effects Research Foundation(RERF).
[Hiroshima A-bomb Maidens receiving medical treatment (1955-25 girls)]
In May 1955, twenty-five Hiroshima maidens were taken to America for treatment.
Forty-three young women applied for this project and twenty-five were chosen as "Hiroshima Maidens".
In over one and half years, the women underwent a total of 133 surgical operations at Mt. Sainai Hospital in New York.
While the young women were in the United States for treatment, Quaker families opened their homes to the Maidens. Experiencing love and goodwill of Americans, the Maidens were healed mentally, too.
The Maidens demonstrated graphically the inhumanity of nuclear weapons.
Quaker families maintained a close relationship with the Maidens after they returned to Japan. Some of the Maidens returned to America and settled there. Three of them have a happy married life there.
This project played a key role in raising public interest in the plight of survivors, communicating to the world the calamity that had befallen Hiroshima and providing opportunities for understanding and cooperation.
On March 1, 1954, the USA made an experiment with the hydrogen bomb at Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands.
Fukuryu-maru No. 5 fishing for tuna more than 100 km away from Bikini Atoll was exposed to radioactive fallout "ashes of death" from a hydrogen bomb test conducted by the US.
The entire crew was hospitalized with acute radiation-related disorders such as burns, loss of hair, subcutaneous bleeding , and the chief of radio operations. One of them died within six months.
This developed into the Suginami Appeal to collect signature against A- and H-bomb Tests.
This campaign triggered a nationwide movement against atomic and hydrogen bomb test.
[Health Examinations for Hibakusha]
After the war, survivors received no special assistance beyond the Daily Life Security Law and other provisions of the general welfare system;
In April 1957, the A-bomb Survivors Medical Care Law was enacted.
In the city of Hiroshima, A-bomb Survivor Health Books were issued from June of the same year.
The bearer of A-bomb Survivor Health Book can receive medical examinations and treatment at the national government's expense.
More than half a century after the bombing, survivors still apply for these health books.
For these reasons, "I was healthy and didn't think I needed it, but now I am ill and worried about the future," or "I didn't want to admit I'm a survivor for fear it might keep my children from getting married."
"We encounter the frightening depth of A-bomb damage.
In 1968, the A-bomb Survivors Special Measures Law was enacted to provide higher levels of assistance.
In 1994, These two measures were integrated by the Atomic Bomb Survivors' Support Law.
It made the national government clearly responsible for comprehensive assistance to survivors including health management, medical care, and welfare measures.
Classification of the survivors
@@EThose who were about four kilometers of the hypocenter or in black rain area at the A-bombing.
@@EThose who entered an area within two kilometers of the hypocenter in the two weeks after the bombing.
@@EThose who worked for rescue teams or were involved in the disposal of corpses.
@@EThose who were fetuses at the time.
East Building (3F)
The nuclear age began when the Atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
The appearance of nuclear weapons brought the human race to the brink of destruction.
The Three Non-nuclear Principles- No manufacturing, no possession and no introduction of nuclear weapons.
There are two types of nuclear weapons such as the atomic bombs and hydrogen bombs.
Some hydrogen bombs like the one tested on the Bikini Atoll on March 1,1954 are over 1,000 times more powerful than the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima. Some smaller hydrogen bombs such as neutron bombs, have only about one tenth the power of the Hiroshima A-bomb.
(The Principle behind nuclear weapons)
An atomic bomb is a nuclear weapon that causes a nuclear fission chain reaction of uranium or plutonium.
Little Boy was designed so that two pieces of uranium each less than the critical mass were placed at opposite ends of a long narrow cylinder. When one piece was fired into the other, a chain reaction occurred.
In the design of Fat Man plutonium-239 was placed in two half spheres, each containing less than the amount needed to create critical mass. When compressed by explosives, the density of the plutonium is increased, creating a critical mass and a nuclear explosive.
Devices to transport nuclear weapons to their targets are called bombers and missiles.
Nuclear weapons transported by missiles are called nuclear warheads. Missiles are categorized by range: short-, intermediate- and long-range.
Another recently developed technology is the multiple warhead. A single missile carries several nuclear warheads each capable of attacking a different target. Such missiles can be launched from the ground or from ships and submarines.
(ICBM) intercontinental ballistic@@@
@@@@ (IRBM) intermediate-range ballistic
(MRBM) medium range ballistic missle
@@@ @ (SLBM) cruise missile
The C3I System, taking its name from the first letters of Command, Control, Communication and Intelligence, was designed to manage a nuclear war.
Elements of the C3I system established by the U.S. Army is in use today throughout the Japanese archipelago, from Hokkaido to Okinawa.
A cylindrical antenna called the "elephant cage" is located in the Misawa Base in Aomori prefecture. With a diameter of 400 m, the antenna listens continuously to electronic information from all directions/
If a large-scale nuclear war were to break out, the effect would extend beyond the havoc wreaked by direct damage.
Soot from giant fires along with radioactive dust hurled by the bombs into the air would screen out the sun's rays, greatly reducing the earth's atmospheric temperature, producing a climactic condition know as nuclear winter.
In an all-out nuclear war, the lowered temperatures could persist on a global scale for several months.
A nuclear winter would inhibit food production, and many of the Earth's creatures would perish, possibly leading to mass human starvation.
Even after the worst effects had abated radioactive dust would continue to swirl around the Earth causing abnormal weather and periodically deposing deadly radioactive fallout. Both hunger and illness caused by radiation would spread around the world.
[Nuclear Proliferation@@the Earth]
This is the Earth. This is the North Pole, so on the North hemisphere, there are many warheads.
By 1964, five countries such as the U.S., the former Soviet Union, the U.K., France and China had become nuclear powers.
[The Peace Memorial Ceremony and Peace Declaration]
Every year on August 6, Hiroshima City holds the Peace Memorial Ceremony in front of the Cenotaph.
The Mayor of Hiroshima reads the Peace Declaration, which is distributed throughout the world.
The Peace Memorial Ceremony started in 1947.
[Lessons of history]
Conveying the A-bomb experience
In Hiroshima, there are some A-bomb story tellers who try to hand down their experiences to the younger generation who have never experienced war.
During the season of school trip, there are many story tellers in the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park who talk about their experiences of the atomic bomb to school children, ranging from elementary school students to high school students from all over Japan.
Before the dropping of the atomic bomb, the seven rivers which Hiroshima City was proud of due to the beauty, were used to relax the citizens of Hiroshima. They were also great playgrounds for children.
After the atomic bomb exploded, many people, who suffered burns from the heat flash, fled to the rivers, riverbanks and fire cisterns to find relief from their burns and to drink the water. Most of them died.
On the evening of August 6, anyone who comes to the banks of the river located across from the Atomic Dome can join this ceremony to console A-bomb victims.
[The prayer of Hiroshima]
Many children are coming to Hiroshima with their parents or teachers from all over Japan and the world.
In the middle of the 20s century Hiroshima which was "an atomic desert" is now a city where children can come and contemplate about world peace.
[National movement to Ban A-and H-bombs]
In March of 1954, Japanese fishing crew members of the Lucky Dragon No. 5 were covered with "death ashes" and developed A-bomb disease because of a hydrogen bomb test.
When people in Japan heard about this incident, they got angry about nuclear bombs and started a fresh movement against A- and H-bombs.
In May, 1954, the Suginami Appeal, which declared that the movement against the A- and H-bombs should be presented to the world by the gathering-signatures, was issued in Tokyo.
After the Hiroshima Conference against A- and H-bombs was held in Hiroshima, more than 1 million signatures of citizens of against A- and H-bombs were gathered.
On August 6, 1955, the first World Conference against Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs was held with overseas delegations from many countries in Hiroshima.
[Protesting nuclear weapons testing]
Citizens started to hold a sit-in on July 20, 1973, to protest against a critical nuclear test conducted by France.
During the sit-in people sit with their backs to the Cenotaph to protest against nuclear weapons. This way the people are facing in the same direction as the spirits believed to be present, and together can face the world with their message of peace.
Nuclear weapons are still being developed and currently sub-critical nuclear tests are conducted in the U.S. and Russia.
[Chinese Parasol Trees which survived the Atomic Bomb]
It was believed that no plants would grow in the scorched land of Hiroshima for 75 years. One month after the Atomic bomb, a typhoon named Makurazaki which brought a lot of rain in Hiroshima. A long spell of fine weather followed the typhoon. In fall, 1945, new leaves started to appear out of the burnt earth.
These Chinese Parasol Trees used to be on the ground of the Hiroshima Communications Bureau which was located 1,3 km from the hypocenter. They were hit by the intense heat rays and damaged. Keloids formed over the injured parts of the trees. These trees also began sprouting new leaves. Those new leaves gave hope of living to A-bomb survivors.
This museum shop sells books, materials for paper cranes and other mementos. This bilingual pictorial book of the museum is worthwhile, because itfs partially funded by the city. You may come back here after visiting the Main Building.
Aerial Photos: These are a part of aerial photos taken by the American military before and after the bombing to examine the A-bombfs destructive power.
[Passage to the Main Building]
The Main Building shows what happened on that morning in Hiroshima. A photo over there was taken one hour after the bombing from an American bomber flying 80km away.
Main Building (West Building)
[Photos of Mushroom Cloud]
These photos of the Mushroom Cloud were taken from various points on the ground.
It was very fine that morning. In a blue sky, the mushroom cloud was observed from the distance.
In the city, those who barely escaped from instant death were wondering around the rubble town for help. Fierce heat rays burned their bodies and clothes. Broken skins hung like tatters. Survivors say the reality was much more terrible.
[Articles left by Victims]
(This is a watch stopped at the moment. A silent witness of the tragedy.)
Here are articles left by students working for building demolition. 8,400 students were working in the city. 6,300 of them perished. Most of them were 12 to 14 years old. Their families walked around the burned town looking for their kids day after day and finally found these materials. In many cases, burned bodies couldnft be identified. Have a look at the articles that tell us peoplefs sorrow and anger.
[Model of Little Boy]
This is an actual size model of Little Boy, the A-bomb dropped on Hiroshima. Itfs only 3 meters long. (The fission material was uranium 235. Itfs said that a little bit over 50kg of them were loaded in Little Boy (80% of 64kg).)
This model shows an area of 5.5km diameter (scale: 1/1,000).
(Hiroshima was developed on an Ohta River delta. As the landform is flat, the A-bomb damage extended. That was one of reasons why Hiroshima became a target of the bombing.)
Size of the A-bomb is only 3mm on this scale. Such tiny bomb created this vast stretch of burned ruins. And, present H-bombs are 1,000 or 2,000 times more powerful.
The A-bomb exploded at 600 meters above the ground. Diameter of the fireball became 280 meters in one second, as shown in this model. It was larger than this museum building complex. The temperature of the fireball surface was 5,000 degrees celsius. It was like a sun.
(Temperature at the hypocenter reached 3,000-4,000C. In the hypocenter vicinity, blast moved faster than sound (440m/s).
That white triangle mark shows the location of the Museum. Temperature around here became 2,000C, which was higher than ironfs melting temperature. Fatal heat rays attacked the city for several seconds. At a 2km point, clothing on human bodies ignited. The maximum wind velocity at a point of this Museum was 280m/s. Its power was immense. Most buildings were crushed with many people inside and burned up.
Itfs said there were some 350,000 people in the city at that moment. 140,000 died by the end of the year from the A-bomb damage. At least 110,000 of them were civilians including many children. Nuclear weapon can not kill soldiers alone.
Just three days later, tram (streetcar) operation was resumed in this ruin though it was in a very limited section. Wounded and disheartened survivors were encouraged a lot by seeing the moving trams. Because of that experience, even now, people of Hiroshima love trams. Hiroshima now has by far the most trams in Japan.
[Shin-chanfs Tricycle (1.5km)]
This was a 3-year-old boyfs tricycle. The boy was playing with this favorite tricycle, and burned to death. His father thought, if he put the boy alone in a distant grave, the boy would feel lonely. He dug a hole in a backyard and put his son there with this tricycle. Forty years later, the father picked the boy up and put him into a grave and donated this tricycle to the museum.
[Belongings of Three Junior High Students (900m)]
This is not a military uniform, but a uniform of a junior high school student. They were collected from belongings of 3 students who were working together to demolish buildings.
[Heat Rays Damage]
Human Shadow (260m): This is a shadow of a person sitting on the steps of a bank entrance. The surface of the surrounding stone steps turned whitish by the heat rays.
Burned Roof Tiles: The surface of roof tiles within 600 meters of the ground zero melted and blistered. To reproduce these blistered tiles, you have to burn them with a burner for about 10 seconds. People in the area were exposed to such terrible heat.
Warped Iron Shutters (2.67km): These iron shutters were bent by the blast.
Glass Fragments from Bodies (1.5km) : People were heavily wounded by window glasses, which broke into pieces and flew through the air with the speed of sound. Those glass fragments lodged in human bodies and stayed there for decades.
[Damage by Super-high-temperature Fires]
As temperature of the fireball was very high, a huge mass of heated air went up to create a mushroom cloud. On the ground, air blew into the hypocenter vicinity from surrounding area. The city became a huge stove with a chimney of the mushroom cloud. The super-high- temperature fires melted glass, earthenware, ..china, metal, and everything.
This corner was totally renovated recently (Mar. 02), with many video presentations.
A-bombfs distinct difference from conventional weapons is emitting radiation. Radiation goes into a human body, destroys cells and gives serious damage to organs.
Wall with Black Rain Marks (3.7km): 30 minutes after the explosion, black rain started to fall in downtown and northwestern suburbs. As it was highly radioactive, damage was extended.
Symptoms of acute disorder include high fever, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting blood, losing hair and so on. Those who were directly exposed to the radiation within 1km of the ground zero got lethal damage.
Radiation damage may come out years or decades later. A lot of survivors are still suffering from the A-bomb exposure. Itfs called gaftereffectsh, of which symptoms include leukemia and cancer (keloid, glaucoma). That is one of awful characteristics of radiation damage.
2-year-old Sadako was exposed at a location 1.7km from the ground zero. But she
Looked unhurt and grew up an energetic young girl. Ten years later, she fell ill and
was hospitalized with leukemia. As she heard of a traditional belief that folding
1,000 paper cranes would grant onefs wish for recovery, Sadako kept folding cranes.
Her wish was unfulfilled. On October, 1955, after eight-month battle in the hospital,
she died at age 12 leaving over 1,300 paper cranes. Here are Sadakofs paper cranes.
Having heard the sad news, her classmates started a fund raising campaign for a monument of Sadako and all other children killed by the A-bomb. Donation came from 3,000 schools all over Japan and 9 other countries. By the funding, the Childrenfs Peace Monument was erected in the Peace Memorial Park. By this episode, a paper crane has become a symbol for peace. As the story of Sadako was published in many countries, paper cranes with prayers for peace are continuously arriving to the Monument from domestic and foreign children.
[Relief and Rescue Activities]
After the explosion, many people entered the city for relief and rescue activities or to search for their family members. They were exposed to residual radiation.
Even now, many Hibakushas or survivors are suffering from aftereffects of the A-bomb exposure. At present, there are over 260,000 of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Hibakushas.
[A-bomb Drawings by Survivors]
These were drawn by survivors, 30 years after the war. Over 3,000 drawings are kept in this museum.
[Survivors Speak Up]
Survivors are telling their experience through testimony videotapes. 10 personsf testimonies are available with English subtitles. Each one is edited to 3 minutes long.